Ground related measurement

Sensor selection in ground related measurement

Measuring item Instruments Type Remark
Rigidity of fill, ground and small asphalt paving Small FWD FWD-Light Fill
Rebound and settlement amount of ground Multi-layer inclinometers KLC Excavation and fill
Moving (sliding) amount of grond surface Extensometers KLG/NKLG Landslide observation
Settlement in the inside of ground Settlement meters KLA/NKLA Tunnel construction
Bedrock displacement Bedrock displacement transducers KLB Landslide observation
Tunnel construction
Bedrock displacement Rockbolt axial force transducers KRC-A Landslide observation
Tunnel construction
Pore-water pressure in soil and seepage pressure in bedrock Pore pressure gauges KP series  
Pore-water pressure and side wall pressure in soil Soil pressure gauges KD series  
Inclination in ground Inclinometers
 (Multi-layer, in-place and embedment)
KB series (multi-layer)
KB series (in-place)
KB series (embedment)

Minute displacement between two points 1 - 10m apart microcreep meter KH series Tunnel construction